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Effects of Racecadotril on Weight Loss and Diarrhea Due to Human Rotavirus in Neonatal Gnotobioti...
Effects of Racecadotril on Weight Loss and Diarrhea Due to Human Rotavirus in Neonatal Gnotobioti...
Diarrheal disease is the second leading cause of death in children younger than 5 y, and the most common cause of acute watery diarrhea in young children worldwide is rotaviral infection.
Physiologic Correlates of Interactions between Adult Male and Immature Long-tailed Macaques (Maca...
Physiologic Correlates of Interactions between Adult Male and Immature Long-tailed Macaques (Maca...
Interactions between adult males and immature members of the same species are rare in most mammals; in contrast, an estimated 40% of primate species are characterized by an involvement of males in the social life of infants and juveniles.
Effect of Wearing a Telemetry Jacket on Behavioral and Physiologic Parameters of Dogs in the Open...
Effect of Wearing a Telemetry Jacket on Behavioral and Physiologic Parameters of Dogs in the Open...
Safety pharmacology studies in dogs often integrate behavioral assessments made using video recording with physiologic measurements collected by telemetry. However, whether merely wearing the telemetry vest affects canine behavior and other parameters ...
Behavioral Characteristics of Adult Zebrafish (Danio rerio) after MS222 Anesthesia for Fin Excision
Behavioral Characteristics of Adult Zebrafish (Danio rerio) after MS222 Anesthesia for Fin Excision
The health of laboratory animals is an ethical responsibility of researchers and a critical determinant of experimental outcome. Therefore, all husbandry procedures should be evaluated for their effects on mortality, behavior, and physiology to maximiz...
Methods for Investigating the Motivation of Mice to Explore and Access Food Rewards
Methods for Investigating the Motivation of Mice to Explore and Access Food Rewards
The emotional state of domestic animals is an essential component of the assessment of their welfare. In addition, sensitivity to various rewards can be a valuable indicator when investigating these states.
Silicon Foreign Body in the Cerebrum of a Rhesus Macaque (Macaca mulatta)
Silicon Foreign Body in the Cerebrum of a Rhesus Macaque (Macaca mulatta)
A male rhesus macaque with a cephalic chamber implant for neurophysiology recording presented with hemiparesis affecting the left thoracic and pelvic limbs at approximately 5 wk after craniotomy surgery.
Pharmacokinetics of a Novel, Transdermal Fentanyl Solution in Rhesus Macaques (Macaca mulatta)
Pharmacokinetics of a Novel, Transdermal Fentanyl Solution in Rhesus Macaques (Macaca mulatta)
Rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) are the most commonly used NHP biomedical model and experience both research and clinical procedures requiring analgesia. Opioids are a mainstay of analgesic therapy. A novel, transdermal fentanyl solution (TFS) has bee...
Lack of Effect of Murine Astrovirus Infection on Dextran Sulfate�induced Colitis in NLRP3-deficie...
Lack of Effect of Murine Astrovirus Infection on Dextran Sulfate�induced Colitis in NLRP3-deficie...
Murine astrovirus (MuAstV) is a recently identified, widespread infection among laboratory mice. MuAstV is found predominantly in the gastrointestinal tract of mice. Human and turkey astroviruses have been shown to disrupt tight junctions in the intest...
Humane Endpoints for Guinea Pigs Used for Mycobacterium tuberculosis Vaccine Research
Humane Endpoints for Guinea Pigs Used for Mycobacterium tuberculosis Vaccine Research
Guinea pigs are a commonly used model for tuberculosis vaccine research. Loss of body weight is the most frequently described humane endpoint for animals used in these studies. During a chronic study, we noted labored breathing in some tuberculosis-inf...
Cohousing Male Mice with and without Segmental Bone Defects
Cohousing Male Mice with and without Segmental Bone Defects
Spaceflight results in bone loss like that associated with osteoporosis or decreased weight-bearing (for example, high-energy trauma such as explosive injuries and automobile accidents).
Age-Associated Differences in Hematopoietic Stem and Progenitor Cells of Mice
Age-Associated Differences in Hematopoietic Stem and Progenitor Cells of Mice
Establishing the appropriate yet minimal number of control mice for experiments is a critical step in experimental design. This decision is particularly important regarding the study of the hematopoietic system over time, given various age-associated c...
Heating Pad Performance and Efficacy of 2 Durations of Warming after Isoflurane Anesthesia of Spr...
Heating Pad Performance and Efficacy of 2 Durations of Warming after Isoflurane Anesthesia of Spr...
Anesthetic agents depress thermoregulatory mechanisms, causing hypothermia within minutes of induction of general anesthesia.
Population Genetic Structure of the Cayo Santiago Colony of Rhesus Macaques (Macaca mulatta)
Population Genetic Structure of the Cayo Santiago Colony of Rhesus Macaques (Macaca mulatta)
The rhesus macaque population at Cayo Santiago increases annually and is in urgent need of control. In-depth assessments of the colony�s population genetic and pedigree structures provide a starting point for improving the colony�s long-term management...
Uses and Doses of Local Anesthetics in Fish, Amphibians, and Reptiles
Uses and Doses of Local Anesthetics in Fish, Amphibians, and Reptiles
Local anesthetics are an integral part of routine pain management in mammals, yet their use is relatively limited in fish, amphibians and reptiles.
Viral Vector Biosafety in Laboratory Animal Research
Viral Vector Biosafety in Laboratory Animal Research
Viral vector research presents unique occupational health and safety challenges to institutions due to the rapid development of both in vivo and in vitro gene-editing technologies.
Retrospective Review of Surgical Outcomes and Pair-housing Success in Vasectomized Rhesus Macaque...
Retrospective Review of Surgical Outcomes and Pair-housing Success in Vasectomized Rhesus Macaque...
Providing social housing for adult male macaques can be challenging. One successful strategy for long-term social housing of adult male macaques is to pair them with adult females; however, unwanted breeding must be prevented by sterilization of the ma...
Optimization of Glioblastoma Mouse Orthotopic Xenograft Models for Translational Research
Optimization of Glioblastoma Mouse Orthotopic Xenograft Models for Translational Research
Glioblastoma is an aggressive primary brain tumor predominantly localized to the cerebral cortex. We developed a panel of patient-derived mouse orthotopic xenografts (PDOX) for preclinical drug studies by implanting cancer stem cells (CSC) cultured fro...
Novel H-shunt Venovenous Bypass for Liver Transplantation in Cynomolgus Macaques
Novel H-shunt Venovenous Bypass for Liver Transplantation in Cynomolgus Macaques
Cynomolgus monkeys are often used in preclinical transplantation research. Performing liver transplantation in cynomolgus monkeys is challenging because they poorly tolerate portal vein clamping during the anhepatic phase.
Anesthetic and Postanesthetic Effects of Alfaxalone�Butorphanol Compared with Dexmedetomidine�Ket...
Anesthetic and Postanesthetic Effects of Alfaxalone�Butorphanol Compared with Dexmedetomidine�Ket...
Effective and safe anesthetic protocols are required for a variety of surgical and diagnostic procedures in chinchillas.
Updated Review of Fish Analgesia
Updated Review of Fish Analgesia
Analgesics are an integral part of routine pain management in mammals, yet their use in fish is still limited. Some recommendations on the use of analgesics in fish are currently in the literature; however, information on the properties of analgesic dr...
Standard Electrocardiographic Data from Capuchin Monkeys
Standard Electrocardiographic Data from Capuchin Monkeys
Capuchin monkeys are a species of arboreal primate found in all South American countries. These monkeys have been highlighted for their potential for biomedical research due to their anatomic and physiologic similarities and genetic homology with humans.
Reproductive Performance after Unilateral or Bilateral Oviduct Transfer of 2-Cell Embryos in Mice
Reproductive Performance after Unilateral or Bilateral Oviduct Transfer of 2-Cell Embryos in Mice
Embryo transfer (ET) is a frequent procedure in contemporary animal and transgenic facilities. We compared the reproductive performance of mice after unilateral and bilateral ET of 15 to 18 two-cell embryos per recipient.
Differences in Vascular Response between Balloon Overstretch and Stent Overexpansion in Nonathero...
Differences in Vascular Response between Balloon Overstretch and Stent Overexpansion in Nonathero...
Which preclinical models are best suited for restenosis research remains uncertain. Here we compared the restenotic responses after balloon or stent overstretch injury in a porcine coronary artery.
Automated Tracking of Motion and Body Weight for Objective Monitoring of Rats in Colony Housing
Automated Tracking of Motion and Body Weight for Objective Monitoring of Rats in Colony Housing
Living together in large social communities within an enriched environment stimulates self-motivated activity in rats. We developed a modular housing system in which a single unit can accommodate as many as 48 rats and contains multiple functional area...
Effectiveness of Rapid Cooling as a Method of Euthanasia for Young Zebrafish (Danio rerio)
Effectiveness of Rapid Cooling as a Method of Euthanasia for Young Zebrafish (Danio rerio)
Despite increased use of zebrafish (Danio rerio) in biomedical research, consistent information regarding appropriate euthanasia methods, particularly for embryos, is sparse. Current literature indicates that rapid cooling is an effective method of eut...
The Interplay of Ethics, Animal Welfare, and IACUC Oversight on the Reproducibility of Animal Stu...
The Interplay of Ethics, Animal Welfare, and IACUC Oversight on the Reproducibility of Animal Stu...
Reproducibility in animal studies has been defined as the ability of a result to be replicated through independent experiments within the same or among different laboratories. Over the past few years, much has been written and said about the lack of re...
Effect of Overcrowding on Hair Corticosterone Concentrations in Juvenile Male Wistar Rats
Effect of Overcrowding on Hair Corticosterone Concentrations in Juvenile Male Wistar Rats
In many species, chronic stress due to overcrowding during the juvenile period triggers several metabolic and behavioral pathologies in adulthood. The aim of this study was to determine whether a chronic stress condition (overcrowding) induces changes ...
Sequelae of Occult Aggression Disqualifying Young, Socially Housed, Female New Zealand White Rabb...
Sequelae of Occult Aggression Disqualifying Young, Socially Housed, Female New Zealand White Rabb...
International animal welfare organizations and federal, regional, and institutional oversight bodies encourage social housing of gregarious species, such as New Zealand white rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus), to promote animal wellbeing in research, tea...
Iohexol Clearance for Determination of Glomerular Filtration Rate in Cynomolgus Monkeys (Macaca f...
Iohexol Clearance for Determination of Glomerular Filtration Rate in Cynomolgus Monkeys (Macaca f...
The purpose of this study was to validate a method for determine the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) in healthy cynomolgus monkeys by using iohexol.
Role of Wild-type and Recombinant Human T-cell Leukemia Viruses in Lymphoproliferative Disease in...
Role of Wild-type and Recombinant Human T-cell Leukemia Viruses in Lymphoproliferative Disease in...
Chronic infection with human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV1) can lead to adult T-cell leukemia (ATL). In contrast,infection with HTLV2 does not lead to leukemia, potentially because of distinct virus�host interactions and an active immune response...
Effects of Colored Enrichment Devices on Circadian Metabolism and Physiology in Male Sprague�Dawl...
Effects of Colored Enrichment Devices on Circadian Metabolism and Physiology in Male Sprague�Dawl...
Environmental enrichment (EE) gives laboratory animals opportunities to engage in species-specific behaviors. However, the effects of EE devices on normal physiology and scientific outcomes must be evaluated. We hypothesized that the spectral transmitt...
Scar Size and Other Parameters for Tracking Left Ventricular Dysfunction after Induction of Myoca...
Scar Size and Other Parameters for Tracking Left Ventricular Dysfunction after Induction of Myoca...
In humans, cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the most frequent cause of death worldwide. Myocardial infarction (MI)is a leading cause of heart failure due to myocardial impairment, yet the progression of the resultant dysfunction is often undetected afte...
Characterization of Cotton Rat (Sigmodon hispidus) Eosinophils, Including Their Response to Respi...
Characterization of Cotton Rat (Sigmodon hispidus) Eosinophils, Including Their Response to Respi...
Eosinophils have been postulated to play a protective role against infection with respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), increase the severity of allergic asthma during respiratory viral infection, and drive vaccine-enhanced disease.
Effect of Prepregnancy Obesity on Litter Size in Primiparous Minipigs
Effect of Prepregnancy Obesity on Litter Size in Primiparous Minipigs
Obesity is a public health problem in both developed and developing countries, and the negative effects of obesity on reproductive physiology have been highlighted recently.
Plasma Concentration of Meloxicam in Pediatric Rats
Plasma Concentration of Meloxicam in Pediatric Rats
In this study, we compared the plasma concentrations of meloxicam in pediatric rat pups (ages: 7, 14, 21, and 28 d) with those of young adult rats.
The Social Nature of European Rabbits
The Social Nature of European Rabbits
Increasing concerns regarding the wellbeing of laboratory animals have caused biomedical research stakeholders to reconsider traditional housing of laboratory species and to provide social companionship for social species. European rabbits (Oryctolagus...
Evaluation of Pain Assessment Techniques and Analgesia Efficacy in a Female Guinea Pig (Cavia por...
Evaluation of Pain Assessment Techniques and Analgesia Efficacy in a Female Guinea Pig (Cavia por...
Guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus) are a frequently used species in research, often involving potentially painful procedures. Therefore, evidence-based recommendations regarding analgesia are critically needed to optimize their wellbeing.
Effect of Early-life Gut Mucosal Compromise on Disease Progression in NOD Mice
Effect of Early-life Gut Mucosal Compromise on Disease Progression in NOD Mice
Disease expression in spontaneous nonobese diabetic (NOD) mice depends on environmental stimuli such as stress, diet, and gut microbiota composition.
Content loaded within last 14 daysEffects of Racecadotril on Weight Loss and Diarrhea Due to Huma...
Content loaded within last 14 daysEffects of Racecadotril on Weight Loss and Diarrhea Due to Huma...
Diarrheal disease is the second leading cause of death in children younger than 5 y, and the most common cause of acute watery diarrhea in young children worldwide is rotaviral infection. Medicines to specifically reduce diarrhea would be a desirable a...
Intestinal Parasites and Anthelmintic Treatments in a Laboratory Colony of Wild-caught African Po...
Intestinal Parasites and Anthelmintic Treatments in a Laboratory Colony of Wild-caught African Po...
African giant pouched rats (Cricetomys�spp.) are large rodents native to subSaharan Africa. Wild-caught pouched rats identified as�Cricetomys ansorgei�(n�= 49) were imported from Tanzania.�
Effects of Time and Storage Conditions on the Chemical and Microbiologic Stability of Diluted Bup...
Effects of Time and Storage Conditions on the Chemical and Microbiologic Stability of Diluted Bup...
Buprenorphine is a partial ?-opioid agonist used for analgesia. Due to the small size of laboratory rodents, buprenorphine HCl is typically diluted 10- or 20-fold with a sterile diluent, such as saline, for accurate dosing. Protocols for preparing and ...
Effects of Chronic Diurnal Disruption and Acute Inflammatory Challenge on Mice with Latent Murine...
Effects of Chronic Diurnal Disruption and Acute Inflammatory Challenge on Mice with Latent Murine...
People who engage in shift work (SW) have increased risk of developing illnesses, including infectious diseases and various inflammatory conditions. We hypothesized that exposure to repeated cycles of diurnal disruption, mimicking SW, influences viral ...
Evaluation of 6 Methods for Aerobic Bacterial Sanitization of Smartphones
Evaluation of 6 Methods for Aerobic Bacterial Sanitization of Smartphones
Smartphones are ubiquitous devices that offer a variety of useful applications for human and veterinary medical professionals and the biomedical research community. Smartphones can serve as fomites and potentially transmit pathogens, including bacteria...
Humane Endpoints for Guinea Pigs Used for Mycobacterium tuberculosis Vaccine Research
Humane Endpoints for Guinea Pigs Used for Mycobacterium tuberculosis Vaccine Research
Guinea pigs are a commonly used model for tuberculosis vaccine research.
Shope Fibroma in the External Ear Canal of a Domestic Rabbit
Shope Fibroma in the External Ear Canal of a Domestic Rabbit
A 5-y-old, intact, 2.5-kg female domestic rabbit was presented because of blood spatter on the wall of its cage and the toenails of its right hind limb. Physical examination revealed a red, gelatinous mass that spanned the width of the right vertical e...
Age- and Sex-associated Differences in Phenotypic and Functional Characteristics of Peripheral Bl...
Age- and Sex-associated Differences in Phenotypic and Functional Characteristics of Peripheral Bl...
Chimpanzees are the closest phylogenetic relatives to humans, sharing more than 98% genetic sequence identity.
Characterization of Demodex musculi Infestation, Associated Comorbidities, and Topographic Distri...
Characterization of Demodex musculi Infestation, Associated Comorbidities, and Topographic Distri...
A colony of B6.Cg-Rag1tm1Mom Tyrp1B-w Tg(Tcra,Tcrb)9Rest (TRP1/TCR) mice presented with ocular lesions and ulcerative dermatitis. Histopathology, skin scrapes, and fur plucks confirmed the presence of Demodex spp. in all clinically affected and subclin...
Effect of Daytime Blue-enriched LED Light on the Nighttime Circadian Melatonin Inhibition of Hepa...
Effect of Daytime Blue-enriched LED Light on the Nighttime Circadian Melatonin Inhibition of Hepa...
Liver cancer is the second leading cause of cancer death worldwide. Metabolic pathways within the liver and liver cancers are highly regulated by the central circadian clock in the suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN).
Longitudinal Anthropometric Assessment of Rhesus Macaque (Macaca mulatta) Model of Huntington Dis...
Longitudinal Anthropometric Assessment of Rhesus Macaque (Macaca mulatta) Model of Huntington Dis...
The neurodegeneration associated with Huntington disease (HD) leads to the onset of motor and cognitive impairment and their advancement with increased age in humans.
Immune Activation of Platelets in Response to Serial Phlebotomy in Pigtailed Macaques (Macaca nem...
Immune Activation of Platelets in Response to Serial Phlebotomy in Pigtailed Macaques (Macaca nem...
Serial phlebotomy is a common sampling practice for repeated-measures studies in biomedical research. In NHP, the effect of serial blood collection on RBC parameters has been characterized, but the effects on platelet parameters and other aspects of th...
Effects of Human Management Events on Conspecific Aggression in Captive Rhesus Macaques
Effects of Human Management Events on Conspecific Aggression in Captive Rhesus Macaques
Conspecific aggression in outdoor-housed rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) at primate research facilities is a leading source of trauma and can potentially influence animal wellbeing and research quality. Although aggression between macaques is a normal...
Personal Protective Equipment in Animal Research
Personal Protective Equipment in Animal Research
The occupational health and safety program is an integral component of a comprehensive animal care and use program. It is important to mitigate the risk of exposures of animal care and research personnel to allergens and physical, chemical, radiologic,...
Genetic Characterization of a Captive Colony of Pigtailed Macaques (Macaca nemestrina)
Genetic Characterization of a Captive Colony of Pigtailed Macaques (Macaca nemestrina)
Effective colony management is critical to guarantee the availability of captive NHP as subjects for biomedical research. Pigtailed macaques (Macaca nemestrina) are an important model for the study of human and nonhuman primate diseases and behavior. J...
Comparison of Etomidate, Benzocaine, and MS222 Anesthesia with and without Subsequent Flunixin Me...
Comparison of Etomidate, Benzocaine, and MS222 Anesthesia with and without Subsequent Flunixin Me...
Often few alternative anesthetics for exotic species are available, due to the small numbers of these animals used in research.In this study, we evaluated the depth and duration of anesthesia in Xenopus laevis after their immersion in 3 doses of etomid...
Use of Microcomputed Tomography to Measure the Relaxin-induced Expansion of Intrapubic Ligaments ...
Use of Microcomputed Tomography to Measure the Relaxin-induced Expansion of Intrapubic Ligaments ...
Relaxin is a 6-kDa peptide in the insulin superfamily of hormones. In addition to its effects on reproductive and musculoskeletal ligaments, relaxin has demonstrated beneficial effects on cardiac, renal, and vascular systems in preclinical models.
Intraperitoneal Administration of Ethanol as a Means of Euthanasia for Neonatal Mice (Mus musculus)
Intraperitoneal Administration of Ethanol as a Means of Euthanasia for Neonatal Mice (Mus musculus)
The humane euthanasia of animals in research is of paramount importance. Neonatal mice frequently respond differently to euthanasia agents when compared with adults.
Comparative Review of Antimicrobial Resistance in Humans and Nonhuman Primates
Comparative Review of Antimicrobial Resistance in Humans and Nonhuman Primates
Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) presents serious threats to human and animal health. Although AMR of pathogens is often evaluated independently between humans and animals, comparative analysis of AMR between humans and animals is necessary for zoonotic ...
Comparison of Atipamezole with Yohimbine for Antagonism of Xylazine in Mice Anesthetized with Ket...
Comparison of Atipamezole with Yohimbine for Antagonism of Xylazine in Mice Anesthetized with Ket...
The ?2 adrenergic agonist xylazine produces a sedative effect and is typically combined with ketamine and used for anesthesia or chemical restraint of laboratory mice. Xylazine's sedative effect�and its undesirable side effects of bradycardia, hypotens...
EZH2 Expression in Naturally Occurring Canine Tumors
EZH2 Expression in Naturally Occurring Canine Tumors
Enhancer of zeste homolog 2 (EZH2) shows upregulated expression in tumors and is an important driver of tumor development and progression. However, the mechanism underlying the mediation of tumor aggressiveness by EZH2 remains unclear.
Animal Models of Aspergillosis
Animal Models of Aspergillosis
Aspergillosis is an airborne fungal disease caused by Aspergillus spp., a group of ubiquitous molds. This disease causes high morbidity and mortality in both humans and animals.
Evaluation of Volume of Intramuscular Injection into the Caudal Thigh Muscles of Female and Male ...
Evaluation of Volume of Intramuscular Injection into the Caudal Thigh Muscles of Female and Male ...
This study presents recommendations for intramuscular injection into the caudal thigh muscle of mice according to analysis of in vivo imaging of intramuscularly injected iohexol, a radiocontrast agent commonly used in CT imaging.
Reproductive Performance after Unilateral or Bilateral Oviduct Transfer of 2-Cell Embryos in Mice
Reproductive Performance after Unilateral or Bilateral Oviduct Transfer of 2-Cell Embryos in Mice
Embryo transfer (ET) is a frequent procedure in contemporary animal and transgenic facilities.
Effect of Early-life Gut Mucosal Compromise on Disease Progression in NOD Mice
Effect of Early-life Gut Mucosal Compromise on Disease Progression in NOD Mice
Disease expression in spontaneous nonobese diabetic (NOD) mice depends on environmental stimuli such as stress, diet, and gut microbiota composition. We evaluated a brief, early-life gut intervention in which pups were weaned to low-dose dextran sulfat...
Helicobacter Infection Significantly Alters Pregnancy Success in Laboratory Mice
Helicobacter Infection Significantly Alters Pregnancy Success in Laboratory Mice
Helicobacter spp. are gram-negative, helically shaped bacteria that cause gastric and enterohepatic infections in mammalian species. Although Helicobacter infection frequently is implicated to interfere with reproductive success, few experimental data ...
Minimum Alveolar Concentration and Cardiopulmonary Effects of Isoflurane in Ring-tailed Lemurs (L...
Minimum Alveolar Concentration and Cardiopulmonary Effects of Isoflurane in Ring-tailed Lemurs (L...
The goal of this study was to determine the minimum alveolar concentration (MAC) and cardiopulmonary effects of isoflurane in ring-tailed lemurs (Lemur catta).
Elo-rating for Tracking Rank Fluctuations after Demographic Changes Involving Semi-free ranging R...
Elo-rating for Tracking Rank Fluctuations after Demographic Changes Involving Semi-free ranging R...
Rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) are gregarious primates that form despotic societies characterized by frequent and intense aggression. Within long-term social groups, demographic changes may influence hierarchical stability, potentially resulting in c...
Mice Housed at Elevated Vivarium Temperatures Display Enhanced T?cell Response and Survival to Fr...
Mice Housed at Elevated Vivarium Temperatures Display Enhanced T?cell Response and Survival to Fr...
The inability to translate findings from studies performed in mouse models to the corresponding human condition is well known, especially those involving infectious, atherosclerotic, and other inflammatory diseases.
Role of Wild-type and Recombinant Human T-cell Leukemia Viruses in Lymphoproliferative Disease in...
Role of Wild-type and Recombinant Human T-cell Leukemia Viruses in Lymphoproliferative Disease in...
Chronic infection with human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV1) can lead to adult T-cell leukemia (ATL). In contrast, infection with HTLV2 does not lead to leukemia, potentially because of distinct virus�host interactions and an active immune respons...
A Redesign Approach for Improving Animal Care Services for Researchers
A Redesign Approach for Improving Animal Care Services for Researchers
Because a research institution�s animal care and use program oversees the provision of services specified in approved protocols designed by researchers, the effective provision of services within these programs is paramount to ensuring the humane care ...
Antimicrobial Stewardship in Laboratory Animal Facilities
Antimicrobial Stewardship in Laboratory Animal Facilities
Bacterial resistance to antimicrobial drugs has become a global health crisis. Physicians and veterinarians are embracing the concept of 'antimicrobial stewardship' (AMS) to preserve the efficacy of antibiotics for future generations.
Quantification of Induced Hypothermia from Aseptic Scrub Applications during Rodent Surgery Prepa...
Quantification of Induced Hypothermia from Aseptic Scrub Applications during Rodent Surgery Prepa...
Laboratory mice (Mus musculus) are prone to develop hypothermia during anesthesia for surgery, thus potentially impeding anesthetic recovery, wound healing, and future health.
Review of CO2 as a Euthanasia Agent for Laboratory Rats and Mice
Review of CO2 as a Euthanasia Agent for Laboratory Rats and Mice
Selecting an appropriate, effective euthanasia agent is controversial. Several recent publications provide clarity on the use of CO2 in laboratory rats and mice. This review examines previous studies on CO2 euthanasia and presents the current body of k...
Systemic Iron Deficiency in a Nonhuman Primate Model of Endometriosis
Systemic Iron Deficiency in a Nonhuman Primate Model of Endometriosis
Endometriosis is characterized by endometrial tissue development outside the uterus. Anemia and iron depletion do not commonly accompany endometriosis in women, despite chronic abdominal inflammation and heavy menstrual bleeding.
Comparison of 6 Injectable Anesthetic Regimens and Isoflurane in Gray Short?tailed Opossums (Mono...
Comparison of 6 Injectable Anesthetic Regimens and Isoflurane in Gray Short?tailed Opossums (Mono...
Gray short-tailed opossums are used in a wide variety of research in the areas of developmental biology, oncology, immunology, and comparative biology. Despite many frequent experimental manipulations of these animals under anesthesia, few studies to d...
Content loaded within last 14 daysEffects of Fenbendazole-impregnated Feed and Topical Moxidectin...
Content loaded within last 14 daysEffects of Fenbendazole-impregnated Feed and Topical Moxidectin...
To protect the biosecurity of research rodent colonies, research institutions frequently require a quarantine period for live animals transferred into their facilities. Quarantine practices often include antibiotic and antiparasitic treatment with drug...
Diaphragmatic Hernia of the Stomach with Gastric Rupture in a Domestic Pig
Diaphragmatic Hernia of the Stomach with Gastric Rupture in a Domestic Pig
A 5.5-mo-old castrated, male Red Duroc pig presented acutely with depression and abdominal pain 9 d after an altercation with another pig. A CT examination indicated right pneumothorax and herniation of the stomach into the thoracic cavity. Due to a po...
Evaluation of 6 Methods for Aerobic Bacterial Sanitization of Smartphones
Evaluation of 6 Methods for Aerobic Bacterial Sanitization of Smartphones
Smartphones are ubiquitous devices that offer a variety of useful applications for human and veterinary medical professionals and the biomedical research community. Smartphones can serve as fomites and potentially transmit pathogens, including bacteria...
A Simple Way to Eradicate Methicillin�Resistant Staphylococcus aureus in Cynomolgus Macaques (Mac...
A Simple Way to Eradicate Methicillin�Resistant Staphylococcus aureus in Cynomolgus Macaques (Mac...
Our investigation of indoor-housed cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis) by using automated identification followed by antibiotic susceptibility testing revealed 1 of 7 immunocompetent animals and 2 of 9 immunosuppressed monkeys as carriers of meth...
An Efficient, Simple, and Noninvasive Procedure for Genotyping Aquatic and Nonaquatic Laboratory ...
An Efficient, Simple, and Noninvasive Procedure for Genotyping Aquatic and Nonaquatic Laboratory ...
Various animal models are indispensible in biomedical research. Increasing awareness and regulations have prompted the adaptation of more humane approaches in the use of laboratory animals. With the development of easier and faster methodologies to gen...
Horner Syndrome in 2 Pigs (Sus scrofa) after Vascular Grafting of the Carotid Artery and Jugular ...
Horner Syndrome in 2 Pigs (Sus scrofa) after Vascular Grafting of the Carotid Artery and Jugular ...
The term Horner syndrome refers to the clinical presentation of oculosympathoparesis, comprising miosis, ptosis, and facial anhydrosis.
Effects of Water Bottle Materials and Filtration on Bisphenol A Content in Laboratory Animal Drin...
Effects of Water Bottle Materials and Filtration on Bisphenol A Content in Laboratory Animal Drin...
Bisphenol A (BPA) is widely used in the polycarbonate plastics and epoxy resins that are found in laboratory animal husbandry materials including cages and water bottles. Concerns about BPA exposure in humans has led to investigations that suggest phys...
Tranexamic Acid and Supportive Measures to Treat Wasting Marmoset Syndrome
Tranexamic Acid and Supportive Measures to Treat Wasting Marmoset Syndrome
Wasting marmoset syndrome (WMS) has high incidence and mortality rates and is one of the most important problems in captive common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) colonies. Despite several reports on WMS, little information is available regarding its rel...
What Goes Around Can Come Around: An Unexpected Deleterious Effect of Using Mouse Running Wheels ...
What Goes Around Can Come Around: An Unexpected Deleterious Effect of Using Mouse Running Wheels ...
Environmental enrichment items such as running wheels can promote the wellbeing of laboratory mice. Growing evidence suggests that wheel running simulates exercise effects in many mouse models of human conditions, but this activity also might change ot...
Spontaneous Development of Cutaneous Squamous Cell Carcinoma in Mice with Cellspecific Deletion o...
Spontaneous Development of Cutaneous Squamous Cell Carcinoma in Mice with Cellspecific Deletion o...
The deletion of NF?B in epithelial tissues by using skin-specific promoters can cause both tumor formation and severe inflammatory dermatitis, indicating that this signaling pathway is important for the maintenance of immune homeostasis in epithelial t...
Developing a Performance Standard for Adequate Sanitization of Wire-Bar Lids
Developing a Performance Standard for Adequate Sanitization of Wire-Bar Lids
The wire-bar lids on rodent cages are an integral part of the microenvironment and as such can impact rodent health and wellbeing. The Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals recommends changing wire-bar lids every other week but does not incl...
Methods for Investigating the Motivation of Mice to Explore and Access Food Rewards
Methods for Investigating the Motivation of Mice to Explore and Access Food Rewards
The emotional state of domestic animals is an essential component of the assessment of their welfare. In addition, sensitivity to various rewards can be a valuable indicator when investigating these states.
Evaluation of a Commercially Available Euthanasia Solution as a Voluntarily Ingested Euthanasia A...
Evaluation of a Commercially Available Euthanasia Solution as a Voluntarily Ingested Euthanasia A...
All currently accepted methods of euthanasia for laboratory mice involve some degree of stress, fear, anxiety, or pain. We evaluated the voluntary oral administration of a euthanasia drug in 99 male and 81 female mice of various strains.
Content loaded within last 14 daysThe Interplay of Ethics, Animal Welfare, and IACUC Oversight on...
Content loaded within last 14 daysThe Interplay of Ethics, Animal Welfare, and IACUC Oversight on...
Reproducibility in animal studies has been defined as the ability of a result to be replicated through independent experiments within the same or among different laboratories. Over the past few years, much has been written and said about the lack of re...
Considerations When Writing and Reviewing a Higher Education Teaching Protocol Involving Animals
Considerations When Writing and Reviewing a Higher Education Teaching Protocol Involving Animals
The targeted use of animals in teaching at institutions of higher learning is fundamental to educating the next generation of professionals in the biologic and animal sciences.
Repair of a Large Ventral Hernia in a Rhesus Macaque (Macaca mulatta) by Using an Abdominal Compo...
Repair of a Large Ventral Hernia in a Rhesus Macaque (Macaca mulatta) by Using an Abdominal Compo...
Here we present a 32-y-old rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) with a large recurrent ventral incisional hernia. The initial surgery included midline celiotomy for treatment of endometriosis, in which the animal developed a hernia that was repaired with in...
Comparison of Antemortem and Environmental Samples for Zebrafish Health Monitoring and Quarantine
Comparison of Antemortem and Environmental Samples for Zebrafish Health Monitoring and Quarantine
Molecular diagnostic assays offer both exquisite sensitivity and the ability to test a wide variety of sample types. Various types of environmental sample, such as detritus and concentrated water, might provide a useful adjunct to sentinels in routine ...
Influence of Chronic Exposure to Simulated Shift Work on Disease and Longevity in Disease-Prone I...
Influence of Chronic Exposure to Simulated Shift Work on Disease and Longevity in Disease-Prone I...
Shift work (SW) is viewed as a risk factor for the development of many serious health conditions, yet prospective studies that document such risks are rare.
Out Like a Light? The Effects of a Diurnal Husbandry Schedule on Mouse Sleep and Behavior
Out Like a Light? The Effects of a Diurnal Husbandry Schedule on Mouse Sleep and Behavior
Sleep disruption in humans, caused by shift work, can be detrimental to physical and behavioral health. Nocturnal laboratory mice may experience a similar disruption caused by human daytime activities, but whether this disruption affects their welfare ...
Hypercortisolemia and Depressive-like Behaviors in a Rhesus Macaque (Macaca mulatta) Involved in ...
Hypercortisolemia and Depressive-like Behaviors in a Rhesus Macaque (Macaca mulatta) Involved in ...
A 10-y-old cranially implanted rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) involved in visual research was presented for dull mentation and weight loss.
Echocardiographic Parameters of Clinically Normal Geriatric Rhesus Macaques (Macaca mulatta)
Echocardiographic Parameters of Clinically Normal Geriatric Rhesus Macaques (Macaca mulatta)
The goal of this study was to generate reference intervals for echocardiographic variables in a population of clinically normal geriatric rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta). To do this, we studied 51 animals (age, 18�29 y; weight, 5.24�17.04 kg).
Surgical Treatment of Recurrent Rectal Prolapse in an Adult Female Black?crested Mangabey (Lophoc...
Surgical Treatment of Recurrent Rectal Prolapse in an Adult Female Black?crested Mangabey (Lophoc...
A 13-y-old, multiparous female black-crested mangabey (Lophocebus aterrimus) underwent surgical treatment for chronically recurring rectal prolapse by laparotomy and subsequent colopexy.
Analgesic Efficacy of Subcutaneous�Oral Dosage of Tramadol after Surgery in C57BL/6J Mice
Analgesic Efficacy of Subcutaneous�Oral Dosage of Tramadol after Surgery in C57BL/6J Mice
This study investigated the analgesic activity of tramadol in female C57BL/6J mice by using a single subcutaneous injection (25 mg/kg) of tramadol combined with the same dose given in drinking water for 24 h. We then evaluated the pharmacokinetics of t...
Personal Protective Equipment in Animal Research
Personal Protective Equipment in Animal Research
The occupational health and safety program is an integral component of a comprehensive animal care and use program. It is important to mitigate the risk of exposures of animal care and research personnel to allergens and physical, chemical, radiologic,...
Animal Models of Ebolavirus Infection
Animal Models of Ebolavirus Infection
Ebola virus is a highly pathogenic member of the family Filoviridae that causes a severe hemorrhagic disease in humans and NHP. The 2013�2016 West African outbreak has increased interest in the development and refinement of animal models of Ebola virus...
The Interplay of Ethics, Animal Welfare, and IACUC Oversight on the Reproducibility of Animal Stu...
The Interplay of Ethics, Animal Welfare, and IACUC Oversight on the Reproducibility of Animal Stu...
Reproducibility in animal studies has been defined as the ability of a result to be replicated through independent experiments within the same or among different laboratories.
Effect of Chronic Social Stress on Prenatal Transfer of Antitetanus Immunity in Captive Breeding ...
Effect of Chronic Social Stress on Prenatal Transfer of Antitetanus Immunity in Captive Breeding ...
Because tetanus can cause significant morbidity and mortality in NHP, colonywide vaccination with tetanus toxoid is recommended for outdoor breeding colonies of rhesus macaques, with primary immunizations commonly given to infants at 6 mo of age follow...
Lack of Effect of Murine Astrovirus Infection on Dextran Sulfate�induced Colitis in NLRP3-deficie...
Lack of Effect of Murine Astrovirus Infection on Dextran Sulfate�induced Colitis in NLRP3-deficie...
Murine astrovirus (MuAstV) is a recently identified, widespread infection among laboratory mice. MuAstV is found predominantly in the gastrointestinal tract of mice. Human and turkey astroviruses have been shown to disrupt tight junctions in the intest...
Bias in Rating of Rodent Distress during Anesthesia Induction for Anesthesia Compared with Euthan...
Bias in Rating of Rodent Distress during Anesthesia Induction for Anesthesia Compared with Euthan...
Selection of an appropriate method of euthanasia involves balancing the wellbeing of the animal during the procedure with the intended use of the animal after death and the physical and psychologic safety of the observer or operator.
Content loaded within last 14 daysExtending the Use of Disposable Caging Based on Results of Micr...
Content loaded within last 14 daysExtending the Use of Disposable Caging Based on Results of Micr...
Prions are proteinaceous infectious agents that are highly resistant to denaturation. Sterilization of prion-contaminated mouse cages requires chemical agents and increased autoclave temperatures that damage traditional cages, thus increasing facility ...
Pharmacokinetics of Single-dose Subcutaneous Meloxicam Injections in Black-tailed Prairie Dogs (C...
Pharmacokinetics of Single-dose Subcutaneous Meloxicam Injections in Black-tailed Prairie Dogs (C...
This study evaluated the pharmacokinetic profile of a single dose of meloxicam (1.0 mg/kg) administered subcutaneously (n = 6) or intravenously (n = 2) to black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus). Blood was collected immediately before (time 0)...
Institutional Oversight of Occupational Health and Safety for Research Programs Involving Biohazards
Institutional Oversight of Occupational Health and Safety for Research Programs Involving Biohazards
Research with hazardous biologic materials (biohazards) is essential to the progress of medicine and science. The field of microbiology has rapidly advanced over the years, partially due to the development of new scientific methods such as recombinant ...
To Treat or Not to Treat: The Effects of Pain on Experimental Parameters
To Treat or Not to Treat: The Effects of Pain on Experimental Parameters
A common dilemma faced by all animal bioethics committees arises when exceptions are proposed to the use of analgesics in painful procedures.
A Device that Allows Rodents to Behaviorally Thermoregulate when Housed in Vivariums
A Device that Allows Rodents to Behaviorally Thermoregulate when Housed in Vivariums
Laboratories and vivariums typically are maintained at ambient temperatures of 20 to 24 �C, leading to cold stress in mice. When mice are inactive and sleeping during the light phase, their zone of thermoneutrality associated with a basal metabolic rat...